-ing is a suffix used to make one of the inflected forms of English verbs. This verb form is used as a present participle, as a gerund, and sometimes as an independent noun or adjective. The suffix is also found in certain words like morning and ceiling, and in names such as Browning.
Punctuation is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, whether read silently or aloud
There are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech indicates how the word functions in meaning as well as grammatically within the sentence.
An article is a word that is used with a noun to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope. The articles in English grammar are the and a/an, and in certain contexts some
Tree diagrams are the notation that most syntacticians use to describe how sentences are organized in the mental grammar.
The tree diagram is a newer method for diagramming sentences that is most commonly used by linguists and other academic professionals. While the Reed-Kellogg diagram was considered an effective tool for students to visualize sentence structure, it had many limitations. It dispensed with traditional word order and used a variety of occasionally confusing symbols, meaning the resulting diagram was difficult to understand for anyone unfamiliar with the method. Basically, we use tree diagram to break down a sentence.
We’ll start with the simple tenses. These are probably the first tenses you learned in English. Simple tenses usually refer to a single action. In general, simple tenses express facts and situations that existed in the past, exist in the present, or will exist in the future.
Simple present: I drive home every day.
Simple past: I drove home yesterday.
Simple future: I will drive home later.
Progressive (Continuous) Tenses
Let’s go on to the progressive tenses. We use progressive tenses to talk about unfinished events. Progressive tenses are also called continuous tenses.
Past progressive: I was driving when you called.
Present progressive: I am driving now.
Future progressive: I will be driving when you call.
Now let’s look at the perfect tenses. Perfect tenses cause the most confusion. To put it simply, they express the idea that one event happens before another event.
There are many tricky exceptions with the perfect tenses, which we will discuss in a future episode. The adverbs never, yet and already are common in perfect tenses.
Present perfect: I have driven that road.
Past perfect: I had already driven that road in the past.
Future perfect: I will have driven 200 miles by tomorrow.
Perfect Progressive Tenses
Finally, let’s look at the perfect progressive tenses. Generally, perfect progressive tenses express duration, or how long? Perfect progressive tenses usually include the adverbs for or since.
Present perfect progressive: I have been driving since this morning.
Past perfect progressive: I had been driving for three hours before I stopped to get gas.
Future perfect progressive: I will have been driving for five hours by the time I arrive.